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On the one hand, studies suggest that users may strategically employ these two approaches to complement each other.
For example, Lewis, Kaufman, and Christakis (2008) reports that among U. college students, those who had private Facebook profiles were more active. Christofides, Muise, & Desmarais, 2009) suggest that these two types of privacy management approaches are two independent behaviors, influenced by distinct factors.
Also, unlike older age groups, among young adults, considering privacy as a right or being concerned about privacy of other individuals had no impact on privacy protective behavior.
With the advent and wide adoption of Social Network Sites (SNSs) as venues for socialization, privacy management has emerged as a key research area in current literature (Joinson, Reips, Buchanan, & Schofield, 2010; Wilson, Gosling, & Graham, 2012; Zhang & Leung, 2014).
For example, the concept of “privacy paradox”, initially coined by Barnes (2006), has often been used to refer to a discrepancy between being concerned about privacy and self-disclosure and likelihood of engaging in privacy protection (e.g., Acquisti & Gross, 2006, Dienlin & Trepte, 2015, Taddicken, 2014).
As for the predictors of these behaviors, privacy literacy, concerns and attitudes have been identified as salient factors (e.g., boyd & Hargiatti, 2010; Debatin, Lovejoy, Horn, & Hughes, 2009; Krasnova, Spiekermann, Koroleva, & Hildebrand, 2010; Park, 2011).
The heightened use of SNS sites for socialization has led to a growing number of studies that investigate the two dimensions of privacy management: self-disclosure and privacy protection (e.g., Joinson et al., 2010; Walton & Rice, 2013; Walrave et al., 2012; Yang & Tan, 2012).
Studies have investigated self-disclosure on various social media platforms (Zhang & Leung, 2014), such as online dating sites (Gibbs, Ellison, & Lai, 2011), microblogging platforms like Twitter (Jin, 2013), and SNSs like Facebook (Hollenbaugh & Ferris, 2014; Nosko, Wood, & Molema, 2010).
According to the Petronio’s Communication Privacy Management (CPM) model (2002), privacy management, which can be defined as people’s control over circulation of personal information, comprises utilization of strategies (also called privacy rules) to control individual and/or group boundaries.
Accordingly, CPM considers privacy as a dialectical relationship between forces “pulling between and with the needs of being both private through concealing and public through revealing” (p.12) and argues that disclosure and privacy constitute a kind of unity within which both are necessary for each other.